SMART Archaeology glass arrowhead workshop

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On Sunday I was fortunate enough to run a workshop for the South Manchester Archaeology Research Team using bottle glass to produce an arrowhead. My aim from this session was to get photos and feedback on my teaching and how I am organising the process for the learner.

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I now have a very structured approach and clear outcomes for the session: use hard hammer, soft hammer and pressure flaker; produce something like a Bronze Age barb and tang arrowhead; recognise that the equipment needed is all accessible and therefore personal practice can be developed (if desired).

 

smart 7All those boxes were ticked. I also added a feedback section that was designed to be useful to me, but also encourage some reflection by the participants on what they had learned. This is following Kolb’s learning cycle model and I think it is a valuable addition.

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Feedback from a previous participant has encouraged me to use a whiteboard, in particular to explain platform angles. Having a clearly established process allows me to punctuate it with whiteboard explanations before the participants have to do it. This too is really useful.

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Pressure flaking: it is not easy, and not easy to get people up and running with it in a three or so hour session. Consequently, the later stages involved a little interference by me to get rid of any difficult bits. I have a barb and tang flint arrowhead produced on a flake and made by me. One side of it has a nice row of deep invasive removals. They were produced by John Lord showing me how to pressure flake. The opposite side has an intermittent row of shallow flakes produced by me, not really getting it. I think if John Lord does a bit on his students arrowheads, then it is totally legit.

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And everyone did go home with something approaching a barb and tang Bronze Age arrowhead. I would like to thank Ellen McInnes for suggesting this and Andrea Grimshaw for the organisation and making it happen. Based upon the feedback I can say that we all got something from the day and I think we all enjoyed each others company, so a result!

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The tools I use

This is a reference page to illustrate the free availability of materials that can be re-purposed for the production of stone tools. I really began to improve when I had tools and materials with which to practice and make mistakes. That is why I now love working with glass, and I value the process of re-purposing everyday objects to facilitate stone tool making. I see it as a test of my own ingenuity and understanding (e.g. will it work?). I also enjoy the minimal costs associated with re-purposing, as it makes this activity freely available to anyone prepared to invest the time and effort. Onto my toolkit.

car

Carpet off-cuts. As discussed here I have found carpet off-cuts to be ideal leg protector material. Their free availability means that they are great for workshops as I can make lots for absolutely no financial cost, and minimal time and effort. The above ‘book’ was given to me by my neighbour, Ashif the carpet fitter. Carpet off-cuts receive a 10/10 in my imaginary marking regime.

stones

Hammerstones. Let’s go to the beach. I have a selection of hammerstones of many different materials and sizes and they serve a number of functions. The big ones are useful for breaking up large flint nodules as illustrated here. The first example in the above picture has seen a lot of service and its elongated shape makes it also good for abrading edges as well. The third stone is not a hammerstone, but my abrading stone. Smaller hammerstones can also be used for tasks such as quartering glass bottles as discussed here. Hammerstones receive a 10/10 in my imaginary marking regime.

antler-hammer

Antler hammers. Also known as soft hammers, or even dog chews. This is my favourite and was bought from a pet shop, sold as a dog chew and cost I think about £6. I have since bought a slightly bigger ‘real’ one from Scotland for £9. That is also pretty good. These are useful tools for thinning a piece of flint or glass as they almost peel off layers of material. I have some example soft hammer flakes that I show when teaching someone how to use a soft hammer. If they can master producing nice thinning flakes, the end result is a nicely thinned piece. Antler hammers receive only an 8/10 in my imaginary marking regime, mainly because they cost me money. I will be trying wood at some point soon. Free wood.

pressure-flaker

Copper pressure flakers. This helps if you have builder friends, of which I have one. I have acquired a pipe cutter and have been given waste copper pipe. Copper is now quite valuable and these would have been cashed in for scrap, so they do have a financial value attached. However, Joe Curley was good enough to furnish me with enough to make twelve pressure flakers of two different diameters. Enough to run a workshop. I flatten the ends and use the point for pressure flaking glass and they work well. They do need regular re-sharpening with a hacksaw and file. I have used a ‘proper’ copper pressure flaker as owned by a colleague and it does work better. Because of this performance issue these re-purposed copper pipes get 8/10.

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Soft iron pressure flakers. This is based upon an Ishi type pressure flaker and its production method is detailed here and here. This type also needs regular sharpening with a file, but it is easy to replace the nail when it has worn down. It is now my favourite tool and although there is a cost attached to the production it still gets 10/10 because I like using it so much.

I love these tools because they have allowed me to practice and get better. The free availability of these materials has also allowed me to share my enjoyment and my equipment with others who have made the mistake of expressing an interest. In turn, I now learn a lot from the other people I practice with. We get real excitement from sharing a new revelation, or a newly recognised free source of materials. I could at this point segue onto the social aspects of flintknapping in the present and past. However, the next post will be an accompaniment to this one and discussing freely available materials. Probably.