A ‘lack of progress’ update

My one point per day is working out at one every couple of days. However, I am getting real value out of this lovely piece of glass.


The third point has just been finished and it is the longest. Having got two small points from the first half I split the second large fragment in two using the glass cutter and hammerstone method. It worked perfectly.

I then got work on the third point. We are on holiday and it was roughed out in a glorious 40 minutes sat in the sand dunes at Lindisfarne (Holy Island) yesterday. I spent about 40 minutes on it this morning and have just finished it this evening in the lovely garden of the youth hostel in Whitby.


Again not perfect but I was losing width and so contented myself with symmetry in plan. Current state of play: three points and still one preform left. Last day of holiday tomorrow.


The point of Tuesday

Today’s point went surprisingly well. I used the second end-shocked part of the same material. And I had a plan.

Reflecting upon the Concrete Experience of producing the last one I realised that Kim Akerman’s description focuses upon working the side panel of a bottle. This glass was plate and thick and so I couldn’t follow the idealised model described here. I decided to confidently approach this second piece with my plano-convex method described here. As discussed previously, the edge preparation process also works to shape the piece. Here you can see both the change in shape and the angled edge that is ideal for starting the long invasive surface removals.

Once prepared all round I started the invasive flaking. When preparing the platforms I followed the angle of the edge. This meant that my surface flaking occurred on either side rather than on one surface first and then the next as prescribed by Akerman for bottles. This seems to work quite well on plate glass and the maxim seems to be: work with the angles that you are given. As the flaking gets deeper it then becomes possible to prepare the edge and work the second face. In this way both faces get flaked ultimately.

Tuesday 4

The point is nice and it was surprisingly quick (less than an hour). I have obviously been able to formulate a road-map or Abstract Conceptualisation for dealing effectively with plate glass. Following my (approximately!) one point per day approach, tomorrow I can address the larger piece I still have left. In doing so I will be engaging in Kolb’s Active Experimentation process.

Kolb’s categories are useful on a number of levels and they have given me some ideas about how to better structure my workshops. In particular I am thinking about how to integrate the Reflective Observation and Abstract Conceptualisation stages. Tomorrow we go on holiday for five days. I am taking my knapping equipment.

On the social aspects of Archaeology

This is a post regarding an interesting story that is currently unfolding. It has made me think about the social aspects of archaeology, especially in relation to what has been termed ‘Stone Age Economics’. My own general interest in stone tools developed into a particular interest in Kimberley Points because many were made from glass, and I had access to glass.

The literature review led me to the work of Kim Akerman, who is clearly the preeminent scholar when it comes to Kimberley Points and how they are made. On Academia.edu it is possible to download Kim’s papers, and the site provides the opportunity to let the author know why you are downloading. I explained why I wanted them and Kim got back to me directing me to two particular papers, and two good historical texts. After a brief email interaction Kim had answered my immediate questions and sent me a couple of his Powerpoints on the subject for good measure.

This set me off on my journey, and closer to home I contacted Eleanor Casella in our own University of Manchester Archaeology department. Eleanor is a historical Archaeologist who has worked in Australia and it transpired that she had excavated and found some Kimberley Points. She was really helpful explaining to me the ins and outs of the period glass that was used, and really interested in getting a couple of replicas off me for her teaching collection. I have discussed these before, but to break up the text here is a picture of a museum example and my own interpretation in green.


A couple of weeks ago Eleanor emailed to say a friend and colleague from Australia, Denis Gojak, was visiting the department and she could furnish introductions. We couldn’t meet up as it happens but he liked the points I had made for Eleanor and offered me some Australian period glass if I wanted it. Whilst it seems illogical to ship discarded glass fragments from Australia to the UK, Denis explained that his finds were sorted into: Special Finds; Reference Finds; and Discard. This was the discard material and he had financial provision to dispose of it. Kindly Denis has agreed to dispose of it in my direction.

With a 10 KG box coming I asked Denis if it would be possible to throw in a couple of other items if ‘lying around’, such as a Kangaroo ulna, Number 8 wire, and some Calytrix microphylla, a hardwood from a scrubby tree in the northern territories. All items used by aboriginals for pressure flaking. Denis rose to the challenge and put me in touch with his friend John Pickard, a botanist who…studies rural fences! John is now on the case and has a field trip planned (starting tomorrow) to western New South Wales and has offered to collect the above items on my behalf.

What is going on here? No money is changing hands for these services, but people I have never met are buying into the idea of me producing these artefacts using authentic materials. And they are going to some trouble to help me to do so. Through these objects I seem to have tapped into a network of like minded and like hearted individuals who are prepared to share their expertise and resources freely.

I teach one workshop titled ‘Stone Age Economics’ and one part of it discusses Bronislaw Malinowski’s (1922) work on the Kula Ring and gift exchange. Through the exchange of gifts social relationships are forged. The gift facilitates the relationship. Whilst preparing the workshop for that session I also read Debt: the first 5000 years by David Graeber. In it he talks about how the current way of thinking about exchange mathematically and financially is a relatively new phenomenon. Underlying this relatively new mode of financial operation is the innate human approach of swapping favours, without precisely equating six of these with one of those. It feels as though something akin to this is unfolding here. We are apparently a shared community who all invest some value in Kimberley Points and their production. Or at least we know and value our relationship with someone else who does. These favours are not being measured precisely, but being given whole heatedly from either the intellectual or practical estate from which the individual can give. Perhaps the process of giving and receiving is how we construct and reconstruct ourselves within the various communities we operate within. This is an open-ended post in that I have no conclusions on the topic. I will be delivering the Stone Age Economics lecture again this coming semester and would like to include these exchanges in it. Let’s see.

Graeber, D. 2009. Debt: the first five thousand years. New York. Mellville House Publishing.

Malinowski, B. 1922. Argonauts of the Western Pacific. New York: EP Dutton & Co.

A pressure flaking photo essay

This post is brief through necessity as it was done on my phone, on the tram. It shows the prescribed Kimberley Point process applied to the side panel of a period glass bottle. The last image shows the style of retouch I have been aiming for. It is not finished, but in this raw state it illustrates these aspects well. T.B.C!


Period beer bottle section.

dsc_0132.jpgConcave inner surface worked first to shape and flatten.

dsc_0131.jpgConvex outer surface still unworked.


Convex outer surface with regular deep invasive flaking.

Fourth time lucky

Yesterday evening Nick Overton and myself had ourselves a marathon 4 hour knapping session. I was interested in making two more points from the remaining Camp Coffee preforms and whilst doing so we had some stimulating conversation about the nature of retouch. It has been a theme in this blog that I seem to struggle to replicate the character of the retouch seen on the museum pieces. By the time I got to my last point I think I recognised why. I produced my four points and as can be seen from the photographs below it has made a really nice narrative sequence. Finding the period material; using a stone to make the preforms; using the preforms to make the points.

nest of pointsNick is using a different Bombay Sapphire bottle glass and is focusing upon  getting a series of fully invasive removals on his first sweep. To achieve this he is taking very ‘flat’ removals off the surface of the glass by placing his pressure flaker close to the top of the platform and pushing straight in. He then uses his knee to provide the transverse force necessary to remove the flake, like this.  Although my pressure flaking method is different I am doing something similar, in that we are ending up with similar results. On my last point I started to place my pressure flaker lower on the platform and changed the angle of pressure. This allowed me to work in a more systematic and aggressive manner punching off the removals. I started to get concavity on both ventral and dorsal surfaces and the final point is more similar in character to the museum examples. I am chasing a characteristic method of applying retouch, which in turn produces a characteristic feel to the finished piece. I think the thicker glass allows this kind of work. I am pleased with my nest of points all from the one half bottle. I am really pleased with this punchy approach to flake removal. The next one I think will be an experiment in platforms and pressure flaker angles.



& Chicory Kimberley Point

And the process continues. I still do not like the Glasgow point, and all I can say really is that it doesn’t feel right. As so after playing with it for a while I decided to opt for an overtly plano-convex approach with my next attempt. The rationale behind this was to make the process simple. Rough out the shape by attacking one surface only. This would also create a platform all around the preform. I could then use this platform to punch out large flakes making the plano-convex cross section and giving the piece the characteristic look.


For this second point I selected another blank from the Camp Coffee bottle, this one from the ‘& Chicory’ section. In theory the plano-convex approach would leave on the lettering.


In practice, it didn’t. I like this point, although it is difficult to explain exactly why it looks and feels more correct. It is approximating a lens shaped profile, and I was able to be more confident in how I worked this piece. It may simply be that in plan this piece looks similar to the museum examples I have seen. All I can say is that I am pleased with it. The ‘&’ is a useful landmark to show how much material has been removed.

& point

Whilst it didn’t work out exactly as expected, I enjoyed the process of working through an idea. The emerging goal seems to be to get four points from the four blanks produced from the Patterson’s Coffee bottle. That would be a satisfying result 🙂


Glasgow Kimberley Point

bottle 2

After quartering the Camp Coffee bottle yesterday I roughed out the first Kimberley Point. This morning I finished it (I think).

glasgow point 1

The ASGO are useful landmarks for recognising how much material has been lost.

glasgow point 2

However, I am not quite sure if I like it. It is not quite plano-convex, and not quite lens shaped. This is partly an artefact of design as I was aiming to keep on some of the lettering. However it also doesn’t have the consistent deep invasive removals that have characterised the museum points I have seen. It does have some, especially forming the tip, but not enough to give the overall impression that the museum pieces do. Perhaps it is not finished. Perhaps I need to handle and play with it for a while to know. I am pleased with the serrated edges for which I used a flattened end of a number eight wire. I will report the results of my deliberations…soonish.